Abstract: A growing body of research documents the importance of wealth and the racial wealth gap in perpetuating inequality across generations. We add to this literature by examining the impact of wealth on child income by race, while also extending our analysis to three generations. Our two stage least squares regressions reveal that grandparental and parental wealth and the younger generation’s household income is strongly positively correlated. We further explore the relationship between income and wealth by decomposing the child’s income by race. We find that the disparity in income between black and white respondents is mainly attributable to differences in family background. In context, differences in family background are stronger than differences in educational attainment. When we examine different income percentiles, however, we find that the effect of grandparental and parental wealth endowment is much stronger at the top of the income distribution. These findings indicate that wealth is an important source of income inequality.
“Raced” Organizations and the Academic Success of URM Faculty Members (with Kyle Moore, Ismael Cid Martinez, Jean Shin, Roberta Spalter-Roth, Jason Smith, Amber Kalb). Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, April 2019. (Download Here)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether participating in “raced” organizations benefits under-represented minority (URM) faculty in their quest for tenure and promotion to associate professor in sociology. Raced organizations such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities began as segregated institutions since black students and faculty were prevented from attending or working in white-dominated institutions. Over time, raced organizations developed within the white-dominated institutions, and were often created in opposition to white or “mainstream” sociology. Latina/o organizations (including Hispanic-Serving Institutions) started years after ones for black scholars, and have followed a similar pattern and purpose. While historically white institutions no longer legally segregate URM organizations and activities, these organizations and activities often remain marginalized and devalued. We examine the relationship of participating in such organizations in contrast to publishing in peer reviewed journals for climbing the academic ladder at research extensive and other institutions. We find that there is a significant relationship between publishing and being promoted. URM faculty must follow the “publish or perish” model, following historically white male norms for an “ideal” career in the academic world. The work of black and Latina/o sociologists still appear to be marginalized. Only one type of raced organization or activity – belonging to a URM-oriented section of the American Sociological Association – is significantly related to upward mobility at either research extensive institutions. We conclude with a series of policy recommendations for increasing the academic status and well-being of URM faculty.
Who Climbs the Academic Ladder? Race and Gender Stratification in a World of Whiteness (with Kyle Moore, Ismael Cid Martinez, Jean Shin, Roberta Spalter-Roth, Jason Smith, Amber Kalb). Review of Black Political Economy, September 2018. (Download Here) (Media: Social Research Matters)
Abstract: Under-represented (URM) minority faculty can expand the range of perspectives taught to students, but only if they are hired, granted tenure, and promoted. Their career paths can be constrained due to a stratification process that appears to legitimate a non-Hispanic white male set of rules and practices, including value-neutrality and objectivity. This article measures specific aspects of human and social capital and their relationship to academic stratification in two social science disciplines, economics and sociology. Here, we measure stratification by the distribution of academic rank, and examine differences based on discipline, institution type, race/ethnicity, and gender in terms of academic career success. Our data are unique because they are gathered from multiple secondary sources. A major contribution of this paper is to measure social capital as a “two worlds” phenomenon, taken from W.E.B. Du Bois. Not surprisingly, we find that “publish or perish” still rules. Conversely, URM-oriented social capital, which can provide a safe space and opportunities to collaborate on scholarly work, is not significant. But, it may be related to feelings of satisfaction and inclusion. The only exceptions are URM-oriented sections in sociology. The article concludes with a series of policy recommendations to support URM faculty members in their careers.
How Extended Family Health Issues Influence Household Portfolio Allocations (with Vicki Bogan). (Download Here)
Abstract: Growing research links household financial decisions and health status within the nuclear family. However, the focus on the nuclear family underestimates the health-wealth effect. Previous research finds that household wealth can decline when an extended family member with low income experiences a physical health shock. We expand current economic modeling to investigate the connection between portfolio allocations and mental health among siblings. We hypothesize that mental health issues outside of the nuclear family unit are a unique contributor to household portfolio allocation decisions. We use panel data and find significant effects of having at least one sibling with a mental health issue on household financial decisions. Among the effects include decreased probability of risky asset ownership (stocks, mutual funds), decreased risky assets as a share of financial assets, and decreased total amount of risky asset holdings.
Is There Wealth Stability Across Generations? Evidence from Panel Study, 1984-2017. (Download Here)
Abstract: The net wealth accumulation of (grand)parents appears to be strongly determinative of the net wealth holdings of their adult (grand)children. While these general features are understood, few details are known about the persistence of wealth components that determine overall portfolio outcomes and their variance. Using longitudinal data, I show that grandparents and parents figure prominently, not only in net wealth, but also in a range of household portfolio allocations (risky assets, safe assets, non-financial assets) of the current generation. Meanwhile, I find that there is persistence in intergroup disparities in wealth components. I find consistent results whether I examine intergenerational wealth correlation before or after the Great Recession of 2007-2009. These findings shed light on the connection between intergenerational networks, asset building, and intergroup disparities in wealth.
Abstract: A growing body of research documents that middle income households are increasingly facing a higher prevalence of economic insecurity in relatives. Other research demonstrates that poverty and affluence in familial networks can act as contributors to wealth inequality. We use panel data and find that, compared to their white counterparts, third generation middle income black families (adult children) are more prone to have relatives (e.g. siblings, parents, and grandparents) that face poverty, unemployment, and wealth disparity. As a check for consistency, we explore the cousin dimension of the extended family. We find that asset poverty is more pronounced throughout the life course of middle income black cousins, relative to their white peers. A decomposition of the wealth disparity reveals that economic insecurity in the family tree is one of the largest contributors to the black-white wealth gap among middle income earners.
Measuring the Racial Wealth Gap (with Fenaba Addo, Darrick Hamilton).
Abstract: Studies indicate that while wealth inequality is large and growing, racial wealth inequality is even larger and persistent. And yet, the scope of the discussion on racial wealth inequality is hindered, in part, due to data limitations and measurement issues. In this study we have two specific aims. First, we examine different analytic approaches to measuring the black/white wealth gap. Our analyses allow us to distinguish between estimation techniques that account for non-normal distributions, skewness, and a high concentration of negative and zero values such as quantile regression, inverse hyperbolic sine and logarithmic transformations, in addition to OLS models. We pay particular attention to how differences in wealth data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and Survey of Income and Program Participation contribute to variations in the measurement of wealth inequality. Based on the outcomes from our first aim, our second aim addresses the best approach for modeling racial wealth inequality in the U.S. This section draws from a theoretical lens that emphasizes historical and policy mechanisms that have not only promoted group-based wealth accumulation for some but also, wealth loss and theft for others. We conclude with a discussion on assessing bias in methods and recommendations for best practices when analyzing wealth and measuring wealth differentials in a racialized context.